凤凰彩票

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如何真正实现学生的深度学习?这位特级教师用7句话讲明白了
发布时间: 2020-07-15 来源:凤凰彩票_首页

凤凰彩票shenduxuexi,shizuijinjinianjiaoyujiedeyigereci。qishi,shenduxuexiyuanshijiqixuexizhongdeyigegainian,yuanyurengongshenjingwangluodeyanjiu,you“rengongzhinengjiaofu”tulingjiangdezhuhintondengrenyu2006niantichu,tichudedongjizaiyujianli、monirennaojinxingfenxixuexideshenjingwangluo,mofangrennaodejizhilaijieshishuju。

houlai,shenduxuexibeiyizhidaolejiaoyujiaoxuelingyu,xunsufengmi。danshi,jiaoyujiaoxuezhong,ren(xuesheng)deshenduxuexideneihandaodishishenme?daomuqianweizhi,haimeiyoumingque、tongyidejieding,wangshangdebaikecitiaoyejinjinnengjiansuodaojiqixuexizhongshenduxuexidedegainian,meiyourenbenshenshenduxuexidegainian。xiamian,wojiuyiketangshijianweili,tantan“quanjingshishuxuejiaoyu”tuandui,duiren(xuesheng)shenduxuexidelijie、renshi。

womenrenweirendeshenduxuexiyinggaijubeiyixiayixiejibentezheng:

一、人的深度学习应该是因循学习者身心发展和科学认知规律的学习

rendeshenduxuexihuodongyingshijiyujiaoyujiaoxueguilv、xinlixue、naokexuedengkexueshejibingzhankaidexuexihuodong。wulunshiqixuexineirong、nanyichengdu、xuexiqiangdu、xuexifangshi,haishixuexidehuanjing、shijian、jiezoudengyinsudoubixuyuxuexizhedenianlingtezheng、shenxinfazhanshuiping、jiqirenzhiguilvxiangfuhe,zheishishenduxuexideqianti。chaoguoren(xuesheng)renzhinenglidexuexishihennanshixianshendurenzhide,shenzhihuichuxiancuowuderenzhi。

biru: youershiyijuganjuelairenshishiwu,xingchenggainian。yaoranghaizijianliherenshi“hongse”zheigegainian,ruguowomennayiduohongsedehuabuduangaosuhaizi: zheishi“hongse”。zheishihou,haizineixinganjuedezhuyilihenkenengjujiaozaihuadexingtaishang,jiaoxuedegainianhehaizideneixinganjuekenengbingbupipei!yejiushishuo,haizishoucilijiedehongsegainianhewomenyaojiaojitadehongsegainiangenbenbushiyihuishi。zhengquedezuofashi,womenjihaizitongshichengxiancaizhiwanquanyiyang,zhiyouyansechayidejikuaiseban(biruhongse、lansehebaise),zaiduibizhongbuduanzhongfugaosuhaizi: zheishihongsede、zheishilanse、zheishibaise。zheiyangzuidahuapaichuyansezhiwaiqitayinsudeganrao,keyijizhongganjue“yanse”,gengrongyijianliqifenghuangcaipiaohongsedegainian。shishishang,bujinshiyouer,xiaoxueshengduixuduogainiandexuexi,yeshiyinweiqueshaoduizheigerenzhiguilv、renzhikexuedezhuyiheyingyong,zhishixueshengxinzhongdegainianhewomenlijiede、xiwangxueshenglingwudegainiancunzaichayi。erduigainianlijieherenshidebutong,wangwangshizaocheng“hubulijie”dezhongyaoyuanyin。

二、人的深度学习应该是学习者深入理解学习对象(问题情境)本身的学习

凤凰彩票yaoshixianxuexizhedeshenduxuexi,xuexizheyaoduiyanjiudeduixiang(wentiqingjing)benshenjinxingquanmian、shenru、wanzhengdilijie。tongshi,haiyaolijieyuqixiangguandebeijing、huanjingdengyinsu。renzhiyoushendulijielewentibenshen,caiyoushendujiejuezheigewentidekeneng。biru,wozaiyicishenduxuexiyantaohuishangzhijiaode《getiepi》。zhengjiekezhiweiraoyigewentiqingjingzhankai: “yizhangzhangfangxingtiepi,zhang20limi,kuan15limi。congtashenshangjiandiaoyikuaibianzhang5limidezhengfangxingtiepianhou,shengxiadetiepidezhouzhangshiduoshao?”xueshengjingguo3citiyilijie,caiwudao“congtashenshangjianxia”hanyoubuquedingxinxi——jianxiadeweizhikenengshizaiyigejiaoshang,yekenengzaiyitiaobianshang,yekenengzaitiepizhongjian。

凤凰彩票xueshengzhiyouduizheigebuquedingdexinxiyouleshendulijie,bingqiongjinzheigewentibeihoudesuoyoukeneng,cainengzhenzhengshenrulijiewentibenshen,houxudewentishendujiejuehefenleijianmocaiyoukeneng。yinci,congmouzhongyiyijiang,shuxueshangxuexideshendujiushiduiwentibenshenjixiangguanyaosudefaxianchengdu、lijiechengdu、pouxichengdu……

三、人的深度学习,指向全面、完整、丰富地学习

womenjingchanghuishuoyigecijiao“quanmianshenru”,meiyourenyongcheng“shenruquanmian”。weishenme“quanmian”yaofangzai“shenru”qianmian?yinwei,zhiyourenduiyigeshiwuderenshiquanmianle、wanzhengle,nicainengzhenzhengdeshixianshenru。pianmiandeshenruxuexibushizhenzhengdeshenduxuexi。

yixiangyuwentiweili,womenbingqileyizhishenme,qiushenmewentidedangelitishidexuexifangshi,ershizhijiejixueshengyigekaifang、jinkenengjianshaoyueshutiaojiandedaqingjing: “jiayiliangrenfenbieconga、bliangditongshichufa,xiangxiangerxing”,xianrangxueshengduixiangxiangerxingdegezhongqingxingjinxingcaixiang,xueshengtongguoshijitiyan、xuejumonidengfangshi,xianxiangquanle“mianduimian、beiduibei、tongxiangerxing”desanzhongyangtai,jiezhezhaoquanlemianduimianerxing4leimoxing,jizhenghaoxiangyu:sjia+syi=sab,meiyouxiangyu:sjia+syi+skong=sab;xiangyuguotou(meichujie): sjia+syi-szhong=sab,xiangyuguotou(chujie): sjia+syi-szhong-sjiachao-syichao=sab

凤凰彩票zheiyang,tamenjiuduixiangyuwentiyoulequanmian、wanzhenghexitonghua、jiegouhuadeshenkerenshi,bingweihouxujinyibuduixiangyuwentidegegelitideshenduxuexidiandingjichu。

四、人的深度学习应该是学习者实现深度思考,触及事物(学科)本质,抵达事物(学科)核心的学习

zaishenduxuexizhong,xuexizhenengguanlian、datongshiwusuoyouyaosu,nenggoushenrushiwudehexin,nengkanjianyanjiuduixiangdebeihoudegenghexindebufen,lijieshiwudebenzhi(xuekebenzhi)。biru: xuexisanshitudeshihou,womenfenghuangcaipiaoxueshengzaianshilijinxingshijidetouyingcaozuo,jingguoqinshenshijianrenshidaosanshitudebenzhiqishijiushiwutidepingxingzhengtouying,shixianlecongjuxiangdaochouxiang,congbiaomiandaobenzhi,shendudongchashitudebenzhijiushiyanjiuguang、shiwu、yingzisanzhezhijiandeguanxi,eryanjiu“xing”yiji“xingyuxingzhijiandeguanxi”,zhengshishuxuetuxingyujiheyanjiudehexin。xiangfan,meiyourangxuexizhelijiebenzhi、chujishiwuhexindedexuexi,yidingbushizhenzhengdeshenduxuexi。

五、人的深度学习应该是学生全部身心充分、自主参与,深度、全面激活多层神经元的学习

zhishangdelaizhongjueqian,juezhicishiyaogongxing。juezhi(jishenduxuexi)bixujianlizaixuexizheqinshendegongxingshang(zhenshishijianheshenqiedetiyan)。chuantongdeketangxuexidaduoshi“boziyishangdexuexi”,xueshenggengduoshikaoting、kan、xiangquxue,dongyongdeduoshitingjueheshijue。quanjingshishuxuejiaoyurenwei,shenduxuexiyinggaishizairangxueshengquanmianganzhishijie,zuidahuadihaixueshengyongshenti“wujue”qinshen、quanmian、wanzhengganshouzhenggeshijiedejihui,rangxueshengyongquanbudeshenxintiyanshixuexi,cushixueshenglengrerenzhixiangjiehe、zongheyingyongduozhongganguan,chongfenjihuogengduodeshenjingyuanhegengshencengdeshenjingyuanjiqilianjie,tongshizheizhongcanyuhexuexiyidingshixuexizhezijue、zizhude。beidongxuexihennanshixianzhenzhengdeshenduxuexi。biru: quanjingshishuxuejiaoyuderonghuoquanguodasaitedengjiangdejingdiankeli“shejianshangdefenshu”。

xueshengtongguochiyao、chibing、chitanghulu,hechengzhidenghuodongrenshifenshuhefenshudedaxiao。zaizheijiekeli,xueshengbujinyongshijue、tingjue、xinjue,haiyouchujue、weijuedengquanfangweidiganshoushugan,quanshenxin、shenkedirenshilefenshu。

六、深度学习应该是触及人性、完善人的观念的学习

qianmianjidiantandeshenduhaigengduoditingliuzaizhishijinengfangmian,shirenduiwaiwuderenshihelijiedeshenke。erjiaoyubujinjinshiwanzheng、wanshan、shenkerenduiwaibushijiederenshi,gengzhongyaodeshiduirenzishenrenshidewanzheng、wanshanheshenke。erzheiqizhong,rendesiweifangshi、rendeguannianherendexinglingyoushiqizhongzuizuizhongyaodebufen。yinci,zhenzhengzuiyoushendudexuexi,yinggaishinenggaibianrendingdesiweifangshi、chujirenderenxing、wanshanrendeguannianheyishidexuexi。womenquanjingshishuxuejiaoyuhenduokechenghejiaoxuehuodongdouyougaibianrendesiweifangshi、gaibianhewanshanrendesixiang、guannianheyishidezhuiqiuyusheji。

凤凰彩票biru,womenrangxueshengtongguochazidianzijijiejuehenduoshuxuegainiandeyiyi,gaibianle”zidianzhishixuexiyuwendegongju”zheigesuoweidechangshi;biru,xuexixiangyuwenti,tongguoyindaoxueshengconga、bliangdixiangxiangerxingshidadanzouchua、bfanwei,faxianchujiedewentimoxing,rangxueshengrenshidao“ganyuchujie,cainengfaxianxindeshijie”;biru,womentongguozhouzhangdejiaoxue,rangxueshengtiyandaoyibanwentiyibanduidai,yongyibandefangfaqujiejue,teshuwentiteshuduidai,yongteshudefangfaqujiejue……doushizaichujilingxing、gaibianhewanshanzhexueshengdesiweifangshiyusixiangguannian。

七、深度学习一定是学习者找到“自己”的学习,使人向更高阶、更高层次发展的学习

xuexizheduixuexiduixiangderenzhijinjieshunxuyibanshi“shishenme→zenmezuo→weishenme”,danshi,bi“weishenme”genggaojiede,shixuexizheyaocanwudao“weishenme”beihoudeluoji“shishenme”,jizheizhongsikaoshizenmesikaode。shenduxuexidexuexizhebujinyaocanwudao“weishenme”beihoudeluoji,erqiehainenggougenjuxuexizhezishendexuqiuheshijiqingkuangjinxingdiaozheng,xingcheng“ziji”dutederenzhiluoji,jizijidailaigaibianhechengzhang,congershidexuexizhezaixuexizhongbuduandizhaodao“ziji”,bingshixianmouxiefangmianhuozhegegefangmianfazhanxianggenggaojie、genggaocengcidexuexi。

biru: fanqiegongzuofa。tashiyizhongjiandanyixingdeshijianguanlifangfa(shishenme),caozuofangfashibarenwuqiegecheng25fenzhongyiduan,dingnaozhong,mei25fenzhongxiuxiyici(zenmezuo),yinweirenzhuanzhujizhongjinglideshijianshiyouxiande(weishenme)。neime,zheizhonggongzuofangfabeihoudexingweiluojidaodishishenme?daanshizhengtihebufendesixiang,yejihuazhengweiling,badaijiejuedezhengtichaifenchengyigegebufen,duiqifenbiejinxinggaikuo、guina、fenlei、jiejue,zuihoubajiejuedebufenlianjie、ronghechengfuzade、yijiejuedezhengti。chujidaoleluoji,shibushijiukeyitingzhile?dangranbuneng!womenzhishaohaixuyaozaishenyibu: zheiduanshijianyidingshi25fenzhongma?dangranbushi!“xuexizhe”yaozhaodaoshihezijideshijian,anzijideganshouhejiezoulaiding(zhaodaowoziji),tongshixuexizhehaiyaosikaohechangshi,zheizhong“xingweiluoji、chushisixiang”chuleshihegongzuo,haishihezijirenshengdenaxiefangmian(gengduodizhaodaowoziji,maijinlegenggaojie)。

zongshangsuoshu,quanjingshishuxuejiaoyurenwei,suoweide“rendeshenduxuexi”shizhixuexizhetongguokexue、zizhu、quangancanyuderenzhihuodong,duimouxiewenti、xianxiang、shiwudengshixiangengweiquanmianwanzheng、jutishenru,lijiebenzhi、zhidihexin、shenzhichujixinlingdelijieherenshi,bingshizijiderenzhi、siwei、nengli、sixiangguanniandengxianggenggaojieduanhuogenggaocengcifazhan,jinerbuduanzhaodao“ziji”dexuexi。

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